The EPA or Equal Pay Act: prohibits wage discrimination among employees on the basis of sex when the work requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility when done in similar working conditions. A skill is an experience, training, education, or abilities to perform a job. An effort can be physical or mental which can be heavy lifting or attention to detail. Responsibility is people being accountable for their actions, equipment, money, or other aspects of the job.
Similar working conditions include physical surroundings and hazards of performing the job. There have been many times in the past and maybe even present-day where men get paid more than women. The thought is because people feel men can do things women cannot. Tradition has changed over the years and women are proving to be capable of many working environments and the laws have incorporated this into the legal system. This is partially the reason for the creation of Equal Employment Opportunity. This means that the employer will not turn a person away from employment because of their race, sex, gender, religious beliefs, and nationality, etc.
Other Legal Aspects of HR:
Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Sexual Harassment, Religious Harassment, Age Discrimination, American with Disabilities Act, Older Workers Protection
Reasonable Accommodation: This is part of the Civil Rights Act that requires employers to reasonably accommodate the religious practices of their employees. These accommodations can include the transfer of employees, flexible work schedules, or any other accommodation that may be needed to not interfere with employee religious beliefs. On the other hand, employers need to accommodate persons with disabilities but not in every case. If the case causes undue hardship, the employer can argue the case.